Spine Surgery




   Spine Surgery







          Spine Surgery


                                 spinal surgery includes the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, the spinal meninges, the spinal canal, and the spinal column. The spinal column is made up of sections of vertebra known as the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral coccygeal sections. When stacked on top of one another, the intervertebral foramen of each vertebra line up to form a canal that holds the spinal cord.1 The spinal cord is a continuation of the medulla oblongata of the brainstem. There are 31 pairs of spinal (peripheral) nerves that branch off of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is covered by spinal meninges, which do not attach directly to the vertebra of the spinal column. They are separated by the epidural space, which acts as a cushion around the spinal cord.2 C1, also known as the atlas, is the first vertebra. Together, C1 and C2—also known as the axis—form a pivot joint that allows the head to rotate from side-to-side and move up and down. The vertebrae from C3 through L5 are all shaped in a similar manner, with a body (corpus) on the anterior side and processes extending to the lateral and posterior sides. These processes interlock and form the movable joints of the spine. They also provide the surfaces necessary for the insertion of the back muscles that create the movement. The space between two vertebral bodies is called the intervertebral space, or interspace, and contains an intervertebral disc. These discs are made of an outer fibrocartilage ring that surrounds the nucleus pulposus, a gelatinous substance. The disc acts as a shock absorber between the vertebrae as they move. The intersection of two vertebrae also forms lateral openings, known as the neuroforamen, through which the spinal nerves exit the spinal cord.